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Micromechanics and Microactuators
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SAL3 off-campus storage. V37 Available. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Varadan, V. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Preface. Microelectromechanical Systems. Stereolithography SL. Microstereolithography Techniques I--Scanning Method. Combined Silicon and Polymeric Structures. Kong, X. Carricato, M. Howell, L. Bhargav and Gondi Kondaiah Ananthasuresh Abstract We present a technique that enables both grasping and injecting a biological cell with real-time haptic force feedback by using miniature compliant mechanisms.
The compliant mechanisms serve the dual purpose of grasping and force-sensing. The setup developed comprises an inverted microscope, two XYZ stages for micro-positioning, two usage-specific polydimethylsiloxane PDMS tools, a haptic robot, and a camera for image capture. Soft PDMS grippers help in holding the cells gently without excessive force because their stiffness can be matched with that of the cells.
It is demonstrated that a single haptic device can be used to grasp and inject by switching between two modes by toggling a button on the stylus of the device. The haptic cell-manipulation system was tested by grasping and injecting a zebrafish egg cell. In our earlier work , we demonstrated haptic feedback for either grasping the cells or injecting them because we use only one haptic device. In this paper, we describe how we overcome that limitation even with a single haptic device.
Some additional features and new experimental results are also described here. Bhargav and G.
Ananthasuresh 1. There are many techniques for biomicromanipulation: aspiration using pipettes, laser traps and tweezers, custommade fluidic traps, magnetic traps, and mechanical grippers. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages [2, 3]. Our focus is on gripper-based techniques because they are minimally-intrusive, inexpensive, automatable, and parallelizable.
Additionally, compliant mechanism-based miniature grippers allow in-built force-sensing, haptic interface, and operation without extensive training and skill. Because of the joint-less, one-piece compliant design, a grasping tool can also be turned into a force sensor and thus eliminating the need for a separate sensor which is not easily miniaturizable and bio-compatible.
We use the concept of vision-based force-sensing [4,5] wherein the deformation of a compliant gripper is used to estimate the force through computation. In simple cases, the force is computed based on pre-computed force vs. In the former case, it is possible to meet the update rate of the haptic device, i. It can be seen at Fig. The setup is shown in Fig. Of the two XYZ stages, one is used for actuating the gripper and the other for injecting. Grasping and injection are done using a single haptic device alternately at the discretion of the user. This paradigm helps us in holding a biological cell as gently as possible.
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The haptic loop helps fetch the position of the haptic device to the personal computer PC and sending the calculated force to the user in real-time. The micro-robot loop sends the current position in real time from the PC either to the XYZ stage that actuates the injection system or to the XYZ stage actuating the gripper. This is done with the help of the button present in the stylus of the haptic device. The video loop manages to get the video data from the cameras to the PC and then to the display system in real-time.
The gripper adopted in our work was originally designed by Sahu  using topology optimization. Certain dimensions of the Gripper were modified to suit our requirements and is fabricated in-house by vacuum-casting PDMS in a mould made using wire-cut electro discharge machining EDM of aluminum mould. The geometric model of the gripper is shown in Fig.
These anchors the large squares seen at the bottom of Fig. Ananthasuresh Fig. Here, the actuation force depends on the stiffness of the object held by the gripper. Since the object grasped in our experimentation the zebrafish egg has varying stiffness at different stages of its development and after the egg is released outside, the eggs are injected as soon as they are taken out of the belly of zebrafish to reduce the inconsistency.
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This is used as a calibration curve to estimate the force based on the displacement of the gripper. Thus, the displacement of the actuation point of the gripper is necessary to compute the force of actuation. It is then de-amplified to transfer to the XYZ stage that actuates the gripper. Therefore, any relative increment in the position of the actuator is nothing but the displacement of the actuation point, Thus, the force can be updated in real time. In order to ease the grasping of egg cells, an arrangement is made to move the petridish containing egg cells using the motorized stage of the microscope that is independent to the compliant gripper.
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Using an exterior support, the entire housing is made to float over the petridish that contains the eggs to help one to independently move the petridish with help of positioning stage to locate an egg and place it between the jaws of the gripper. We used a slide of dimension 75 mm long, 25 mm wide, and 1.
The process of injection and its corresponding force feedback worked smoothly with the aid of haptic and visual feedback. Egg cells could be moved with ease because of which grasping them became very easy. Then, we were able to move them out of the jaw region once they were released by the gripper. This feature enabled us to sequentially inject quite a number of egg cells.
After several experiments, we could gauge the amount of force that is to be applied at the actuation point of the gripper. It was found to be about 7.